Book chapter

Martin, L. & Alvarez, J. (2017). De la degamification au « serious serious » : étude d’un dispositif dédié à la formation des cadres. In E. Savignac (Ed.). Le travail de la gamification. Enjeux, modalités et rhétoriques de la translation du jeu au travail. Peter Lang

Gamification, sometimes translated as "gamification" in French (Genvo, 2014), consists in associating play or game mechanics with contexts or objects that were originally lacking. The gamification process can be read on two levels. First on a macro or meso scale: on these scales, the fact of introducing a game, digital or not, useful or not, in training or in a work environment is in itself a gamification process. Indeed, gamification is the process which consists in associating play or game elements in a context which is devoid of them. Then, at the micro level: at this level, the approach is the same, but the engineering differs. How to associate, for example, games or game elements with a coffee maker? To a pair of glasses? To a car? An educational resource?… A common approach consists in associating a scoring system with these objects or useful devices. For some cars, adopting eco-friendly driving that respects the environment will make it possible to grow virtual flowers on the dashboard of the vehicle. On the contrary, adopting an aggressive behavior will destroy the flowers.

Periodic article

Martin, L. & Ferrer, M.H. (2019). En quoi la digitalisation a changé notre rapport au temps au travail ? Dossier thématique « Digitalisation du travail : enjeux psychologiques et rôle des psychologues ». Le journal des psychologues (367), 38-42

Omnipresent in professional activities, information and communication technologies (tic) are in constant progression and their uses are developing. Understanding these uses becomes a key issue to analyze their impact both from the point of view of the psychic functioning of workers and that of the perception of time pressure in the professional environment. In 2019, cyberspace includes 4.39 billion Internet users, or 57% of the world’s population, and is growing by 9.1% more Internet users per year. These figures mentioned in a report of "Hootsuite" and "We are Social" are increasing. For France, 92% of French people have access to the Internet. 58% are active users of social networks. 99% have a mobile. On average, they spend 4.38 hours per day on the Internet, including 1.17 hours on social networks. In the 2000s, the emergence of mobile phones, social networks, blogs and online services led to a social Internet and a proliferation of contents of unequal quality, an infeasity difficult to control. The Internet has evolved into a semantic Internet in order to organize and make sense of the mass of information available to meet the needs of users. For private companies, this network allows exchanges between companies, between companies and their customers and to manage administrative, economic and financial procedures…

Articles in peer-reviewed journals

Martin, L., de Calan, C. & Elandoulsi, S. (2019). Tensions and interrogations of the activity of trainers mediated by a hybrid training system. Education Permanente (219) Le numérique, une illusion pédagogique ? 149-158.

Our research is interested in the real work of trainers, by analyzing the impact of digital technology on their activity at the level of relationships with knowledge, pedagogical engineering as well as relationships with learners. We want to show how the use of a hybrid training device mobilizing various modalities (e-learning, webinar, virtual classes, collaborative learning forums, library of digital resources and face-to-face) transforms the activity of the seven trainers we interviewed.

Martin, L. & Alvarez, J. (2018). Serious gaming activity in team management training: reflections around the emotions aroused and feedback. Revue des Interactions Humaines Médiatisées (19-1), 29-46.

In a socioconstructivist approach, this article proposes to analyze a serious gaming activity in a team management training program. These executives, for the majority of men and engineers, have had a managerial role for more than 2 years. We observed 16 sessions and then met 44 volunteer executives from a large industrial group a month after the experiment. Our work on work and creativity through game mediation focuses on the link between activity in the virtual environment and the transformations brought about in real activity. From theoretical and methodological approaches related to work psychology, we question the impact of serious gaming on practices of the manager in real work situations. The results and associated reflections show the importance of feedback (debriefing in English) to help advance thinking on how to operate a general change management when it comes to thinking about work and promoting cooperation.

Martin, L. (2018). Defensive behavior in groups hinders creativity in a serious game activity: the example of executives trained in team management. New Journal of Psychosociology (26), 185-196.

Gamification has brought the use of play back to the forefront of the work and training scene, notably under the English name "serious games". Digital nature is its most common form today. Serious games offer a virtual environment with scenarios that, in a fun way, would encourage the development of inter-relational and behavioral skills. It's for this reason that the company within which, for three years, my research in psychosociology of work included a serious game, here a helicopter simulator, in a training in team management. My analysis focuses on work and creativity through the mediation of the activity of the game; to play is to do. The game thus prescribed as part of working time to team up in a competitive environment has had an impact on activity, the group and health. I rely on the work of Winnicott (1971), for whom creativity is associated with an attitude of the subject towards the outside world, source of health. Firstly, with regard to the literature, I return to the work carried out on the creativity within groups and work teams. I take up the work of Didier Anzieu and René Kaës to explain the unconscious processes in groups, in particular the defensive behaviors that hamper creativity and individual reorganization and collective labor. The activity is analyzed during the game and back in daily work. Finally, I question the play / work links before opening a discussion on the results obtained. The presentation of the results allows the main lessons to be drawn from the observations of the game sequences and the interviews carried out with the frames.

Martin, L. (2017). Obstacles to a playful attitude with serious play integrated into managerial training: an exercise more than a game? Revue Sciences du jeu (7). Les marges du jeu

In this article, we question the very meaning of the game when it is experienced as compulsory, in a training program dedicated to managers belonging to the same organization. The impact that this can have on the posture adopted by the manager before "Play" is taken into account to think about what hinders the act of playing. We can make the link with the playful attitude inherent in the central "play" in the work of Jacques Henriot (1983). Accepting or not playing in a managerial training program seems excluded, we did not observe any "explicit" refusal situation. Our research work allowed us to initiate a reflection around the margins of the game when it becomes a prescribed practice in training devices managerial. Here we propose another approach by analyzing two very different case studies in the perception that managers had of the training system. Our analysis allows us to question the reasons of this difference which could be due either to the intrusion of playfulness in the professional context or to the evaluation in an activity a priori rather devoted to training.

Martin L., & Lhuilier D. (2016). Training in decision-making with serious gaming: deliberation and conflicts of values. Psychologie du travail et des organisations.

Our research analyzed the use of serious gaming (helicopter simulator) in a management training program. We observed 16 game sessions completed by 44 interviews with volunteer executives from the same company and having followed this training. The results show little verbal interaction between managers during the game, especially on the tasks ordered. The exchanges relate to the "how to do" and not to the goals pursued, including when the instructions are ethically questionable. Our analysis, in the theoretical and methodological framework of the psychosociology of work (Lhuilier, 2013), explores different hypotheses relating to this observation and puts into perspective the little or even the absence of collective deliberation before the decision in the experience of the game, then in the post-training, that is to say in the real work activity.

Martin, L. (2015). Serious gaming, a tool for training managers: thinking about transitionality. Education permanente, 202, 81-90.

In the Winnicottian approach, it is the use that is made of the tool that gives it a transitional value. To systematically attribute this value to the tool would be to give it the function of a "magic and omnipotent object" (Rinaudo, 2010). From this perspective, it is not the tool but the use that is made of it that interests us. There are three positions facing new technologies: that of the decision maker who prescribes the use of instruments; that of the actor who acts by putting in works the instruments; that of the researcher who observes and analyzes “what is at stake” (Rinaudo, 2011). There is still a gap between the intentions of the designers and the actual use of the tools; it's the way they are used that gives them an educational value in the service of apprenticeship or training (ibid.). After having exposed the framework of the intervention and serious gaming, we will present what is "playing" in this space of doing "as if". Our analysis will first move towards the search for an intermediate area favored by the game, then we will analyze what prevents professionals from entering this area.

Lépinard, P. & Martin, L. (2015). From aerocombat to management: Trajectory of diversion and appropriation of the EDITH simulation device.

Serious gaming is the diversion of the use of a commercial video game for professional training purposes (Kasbi, 2012; Lépinard, 2014). A real source of innovations educational, this concept, with a simple definition but complex implementation, is presented in our communication through several diversion trajectories: from the video game world to that of historical professional simulation on the one hand and, on the other hand , from military aeronautics to civilian professional training. For To do so, we detail the example of the interactive tactical helicopter training trainer (EDITH) developed by the company Thales Training & Simulation and converted into a manager training device at Thales University. This malleability enabled by video games and work by teachers nevertheless induces institutionalization problems, paradoxically due to the particularly high capacities of appropriation. We conclude our work with research proposals intended to structure the design of serious gaming devices in order to facilitate the sharing and transfer of these educational innovations.

Martin, L. (2014). Serious games, instruments for transforming work situations? Education permanente, 198, 218-229.

Simulators and serious games allow players to make decisions and explore the consequences. These instruments are therefore simulations used in the field of training. The reference found at the activity in these instruments allows the analysis of the relationship between reference professional situation and simulated situation from a psychological and not only a technological angle (Pastré, 2005). What then are the contributions of serious games compared to those of other instruments used in training? Our literature review allows us to analyze what is "playing" in this space of "acting as if", by comparing work in ergonomics, in management sciences, in sciences of education and psychology, on simulations in their respective relation to the reality of work.

Communications at scientific conferences

Martin, L. (2015, novembre). Resources and hindrances of creativity: from virtual activity in training to real activity at work. Colloque « Travail et Créativité », CNAM, ESCP-Europe, SELF et ANACT, Paris.
Lépinard, P. & Martin, L. (2015, août). From aerocombat to management: Trajectory of diversion and appropriation of the EDITH simulation device. Ludovia n°12, Ax-les-Thermes.
Martin, L. (2014, octobre). Are serious games an instrument for decision-making training? 3e colloque de didactique professionnelle, Caen.
Martin, L. (2014, avril). The work of executives. Congrès Addictologie et Travail « Travail, santé et usages de substances psychoactives », Montrouge.

Display Communication

Martin, L. (2015). Executives play together to team up. Poster présenté au CNAM, Paris.


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